Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder caused by low bone mass resulting in increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. Prevalence increases with age. Every person has a unique peak mass and “threshold value” under below which a bone can fracture after minor trauma. The inter-play between vitamin D, collagen and oestrogen receptors determines bone peak mass.

Peak bone mass usually occurs around the age of 30 years and begins to decline thereafter from mid 40s onwards. Menopause is associated with an accelerated period of bone mass of 2% annually. This rate of bone loss declines with age. Oestrogen is known to be protective to bones and one of the benefits of HRT is the protective effect that oestrogen has on bone mineral density which can protect against osteoporosis.  It is also a treatment for osteoporosis for women in their perimenopause or early to mid-menopause.